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Research Interest

Research in molecular biology has created technologies that can directly benefit human health, agriculture, and the environment. In particular, molecular biology and biotechnology offer a means for improving food production and quality, improving methods for detection of diseases, synthesis and production of pharmaceutical and veterinary medicines, and providing environmentally friendly, value-added products.

My research interest is in the area of molecular biology of infectious microorganisms. This area has the potential for broad application because everyone, in every area of the world, is infected by microbes at some point in their life. The understanding and practical experience of molecular biology, as it applies to infectious agents particularly those that cause global health problems and problems in developing countries, is helpful for me to further my research on agents of infectious diseases. My research covers the application of molecular biology to studying all aspects of the infectious agents (virus, bacteria and fungus), including their taxonomy, diagnosis, epidemiology and therapy.

In contrast to infectious microorganisms, other research area of interest includes screening for microorganisms with the potential to produce compounds with medical and industrial applications. In general, data on terrestrial, water, food and marine microbiology in Sarawak is not well established. Unlike other states in Malaysia, the geographical location and the quite extreme conditions in some parts of the Land of the Hornbill, especially the highlands in remote areas, may promote the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. Most of these precious microbes will remain untapped unless we put in extra effort to carry out mass isolation and conduct screening on them for useful compounds.

Other research interest includes testing of indigenous medicinal plants, which are commonly used by the natives, for antiviral and antibacterial activities.

Publication

Zulkifli. Y., Alitheen, N.B., Son, R., Raha, A.R., Samuel, L., Yeap, S.K. and Nishibuchi, M. (2009). Random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR and ERIC PCR analysis on Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from cockles in Padang, Indonesia. International Food Research Journal 16: 141-150.

Samuel, L., Saraswathy, T. S., Zainah, S., Mohd Apandi, Y., Fauziah, M. K., Tengku Rogayah, A. R., Fazilah, R., Maizatul, A., Nor Shahidah, K. (2008). A virological study of enterovirus infections in Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 12 (Suppl. 1): e301.

Rashid, T. R. A., Saat, Z., Yusof, M. A., Berendam, S. J., Md. Kassim, F., Othman, K. A., Lau, S. K., Khairullah, N. S., Lihan, S. (2008). Surveillance of Influenza B virus strains circulating in Malaysia (2002-2006). International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 12 (Suppl. 1): e301-302.

Vinomarlini, G., Zainah, S., Samuel, L. and Saraswathy, T. S. (2008). Molecular typing of dengue virus during outbreak in the state of Kelantan Malaysia. Journal of Health Management, (suppl.): 63.

Samuel, L., Ravindran, T., Raudzah, B., Vijayamalar, B., Nor Shahidah, K. (2004). Surveillance of dengue serotypes in Malaysia. The Medical Journal of Malaysia, 59 (suppl. E): 97.

Lim, L. Y., Ravindran, T., Samuel, L., Vijayamalar, B., Nor Shahidah, K. (2004). Real-time PCR as a diagnostic tool for detection of HIV-RNA among neonates. The Medical Journal of Malaysia, 59 (Suppl. E): 26.

Ravindran, T., Saraswathy, T. S., Samuel, L., Vijayamalar, B., Nor Shahidah, K. (2004). The use of two-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of rotavirus in direct stool specimens, during an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in Cameron Highland, Malaysia. The Medical Journal of Malaysia, 59 (Suppl. E): 86.

Samuel, L. (2003). Microbiological hazard associated with antibiotic resistance bacteria in fish. Fish Mail, 12 (3): 11-13.

Sahilah, A. M., Radu, S., Lum, K. Y. and Samuel, L. (2003). Molecular typing among poultry isolates of Salmonella agona by PCR-based techniques and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science, 31 (1): 35-42.

Laurence, J., Son, R., Shaharudin, A., A., Cheah, Y. K., Samuel, L., Audrey, L., Lesley, M., Irene, L., (2002). Application of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method in detecting coagulase gene positive Staphylococcus aureus. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 57 (suppl. D): 140.

Sahilah A. M., Son, R., Rusul, G., Samuel, L., Hassan, Z., Lum, K. Y. and Ahmad, M. A. (2000). Molecular typing of Salmonella weltervreden and Salmonella chincol by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 16: 621-624.

Son, R., Ooi , W. L., Siripen, S., Aroonluk, L., Wong, F. H., Yuherman, Samuel, L., Gulam, R., Abdul Rahim, M. (2000). Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated in Thailand and Malaysia. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 38: 141-145.

Son, R., Gulam, R., Ooi, W. L., Endang, P., Maimunah, M. and Samuel, L. (2000). Rapid isolation and detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by use of rainbow agar O157TM and PCR assay. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 31: 77-79.

Son, R., Samuel, L., Gulam, R. and Zuraini, M. I. (1999). RAPD-PCR analysis, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from village and broiler chicken. Malaysian Applied Biology, 28 (1&2): 51-60.

Lihan, S., Radu, S., Rusul, G., Karim, M. I. A., Ling, O. W. and Maisin, N. (1999). Diversity of DNA sequences detected by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profiles of Escherichia coli occurring in raw milk. Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, 7 (2): 127-133.

Radu, S., Ho, Y. K., Lihan, S., Yuherman, Rusul, G., Yasin, R. M., Khair, J. and Elhadi, N. (1999). Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 from human and environmental sources in Malaysia. Epidemiology and Infection, 123: 225-232.

Son, R., Samuel L., Azhar, I., Oii, W. L., Muthafar, H. A., and Gulam, R. (1999). Genotypic and phenotypic relationship in Burkholderia pseudomallei indicates colonization with closely related isolates. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 30: 760-763.

Son, R., Nimita, F., Rusul, G., Nasreldin, E., Samuel, L. and Nishibuchi, M. (1999). Isolation and molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Malaysia. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 29: 118-122.

Son, R., Nasreldin, E. H., Zaiton, H., Samuel, L., Rusul, G. and Nimita, F. (1998). Use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to differentiate isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from cockles (Anadara granosa). World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 14: 895-901.

Son, R., Rusul, G., Samuel, L., Yuherman, Senthil, S., Rasip, A., Nasreldin, E. H. and Nishibuchi, M. (1998). Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal isolated from water in Malaysia. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 85: 1073-1077.

Samuel , L., Son, R., Kasing, A. and Lesley, M. B. (2009). Characterisation of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food sources. International Congress of Malaysian Society for Microbiology, 1-4 December 2009, Penang, Malaysia. Page 223.

Samuel, L., Son, R., Zaiton, H., Raha, A. R. (2008). Total DNA polymorphism among Listeria monocytogenes isolates. 1st Seminar on Food Biotechnology, 25-26th November 2008, Bangi, Selangor. Pg. 62.

Samuel, L. (2005). Molecular techniques in the investigation of infectious diseases. Viral Update Seminar. Jan 14, 2005, Ungku Omar Auditorium, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. Abstract/Viral Update. Pg. 6.

Samuel, L., Son, R., Zaiton, H., Gulam, R., Raha, A. R., Abdul Reezal, A. L., Cheah, Y. K. and Irene, L. (2002). Clonal nature of Listeria spp. Isolated from local chicken and beef meat in Malaysia. Malaysian Science and Technology Congress, 12-14 December 2002. Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia.

Samuel, L., Son, R., Zaiton, H., Gulam, R., Raha, A. R., Sitizulaiha, H., Yousr, E. H. and Cheah, Y. K. (2002). Comparisons of repetitive sequence (RS)- and arbitrary primer (AP)-PCR for discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes strains. 25th Symposium of the Malaysian Society for Microbiology. September 9-12, 2002. Kelantan, Malaysia.

Samuel, L., Son, R., Zaiton, H., Raha, A. R., and Gulam, R. (2001). Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing: preliminary development of specific oligonucleotide probes based on repetitive element marker for detection of Listeria monocytogenes. 24th Symposium of the Malaysian Society for Microbiology. September 9-12, 2001. Legend Beach Resort, Cherating, Pahang, Malaysia. Pp. 130-133.

Samuel, L., Sahilah, A. M., Son, R., Gulam, R. Ooi, W. L., Zaiton, H., Lum, K. Y., Mohd Amer, A. (2000). Application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) to differentiate strains of Salmonella weltervreden and Salmonella chincol. Simposium Sains Kesihatan Kebangsaan ke-3. April 29-30, 2000. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp 182-187.

Samuel, L., Zaiton, H., Son, R. Gulam, R., Abdul Reezal A. L., Mohd. Nizam, L. and Lim, S. S. (2000). Distribution of box element in chromosomal DNA of Listeria innocua and other Listeria spp. as detected by box-PCR. 23nd Symposium of the Malaysian Society for Microbiology. November 19-21, 2000. Aseania Resort Langakawi, Malaysia. Pp. 97-100.

Samuel, L., Son, R., Gulam, R., Mohamed Ismail, A. K., Ooi W. L., Rozila, A. (1999). Molecular methods for subtyping Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk. 35th Annual Seminar of the Malaysian Society of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. March 17-18, 1999. Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. Pp. 19-20.

Samuel, L., Sahilah, A. M., Son, R., Gulam, R., Ooi, W. L., Endang, P., Yuherman and Nasreldin, E. (1999). Comparison of ERIC PCR and AP PCR fingerprinting for differentiating Salmonella enteritidis strains. 22nd Symposium of the Malaysian Society for Microbiology and JSPS-NRCT/DOST/LIPI/VCC Seminar. November 21-24, 1999. Penang Park Royal Resort, Penang, Malaysia. Pp. 64.

Samuel, L., Son, R., Gulam, R., Rozila, A., Zainuri, A. and Sahilah, A. M. (1998). Comparison of plasmid profiling and random amplified polymorphic DNA for typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains. 21st Symposium of the Malaysian Society for Microbiology. December 15-16, 1998. Mines Beach Resort, Seri Kembangan, Serdang, Malaysia. Pp. 56-62.

 

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